Traveling in a foreign country just wouldn't seem, well, foreign if communicating with the locals was as easy as it is back home. It may require patience, open-mindedness and respect. And sure, conversations can be frustrating, but they are also very interesting as you simplify your own language (or speak in a simple version of the local language) while your conversation partner strains to understand and answer your questions. The struggles of effective communication are what make doing almost anything in a foreign country that much more memorable. And if you know a few words (or more) in the local language, then you may just end up as the designated translator in your group.
If you are reading this now, you probably have a decent grasp of the English language. And this is the language which you will likely be able to find in all but the most remote regions if our world, even if it may be extremely rudimentary. Traveling in a country who's language is unfamiliar to you does not mean that you need to take a language course before you embark. In fact, you don't even need to look at much of the language before arriving in the country. All you really need to know are a few of the basics: yes, no, hello and good-bye, and be able to count up to around five. At least you will be able to order a few beers and get a room for the night. Add please and thank you to your language list and you will make conversing with the local residents easier. Anything else is a bonus.
The ability to speak even a little bit of the language will add to the enjoyment of your trip and will improve your relations with the local residents. It is a demonstration of respect and shows your willingness to reach out and make an effort. This is best combined with a polite smile and respect for the local greeting customs, such as a handshake or slight bow.
If your comprehension of local language proves not to be enough, you may resort to using pictures, symbols or objects, or simply combine these with what language skills you have. Pictures of a distinguishable building, museum or attraction may be enough to cross the language barrier. In fact, you don't necessarily need actual photographs. You can draw pictures in the sand, in the air or even on a napkin, as long as it helps to get the communication moving.
Symbols are used in a similar fashion to road signs. They are very simple and represent a particular amenity or service. They can sometimes be found in a leaflet-type format in which there are pictured ten to twenty symbols. You simple show the person the leaflet and then point to the item of interest in hopes that they understand what it is.
Nonverbal communication is a very powerful medium when traveling primarily because it makes for an easy replacement for speaking. And simple gestures are a large part of this form of communication. Gestures vary greatly from country to country, and can easily be the source of slight misunderstanding or serious offences. Here are just a few gestures that get misused: